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Passive Modalities: During the acute stage of injury more passive modalities will be used during treatment.

  • Soft tissue massage

  • Instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM)

  • Electrical muscle stimulation

  • Mechanical traction

  • Stretching

  • RockTape application

Active Modalities: Used later in treatment.

  • Therapeutic exercises

  • Neuromuscular reeducation

  • Proprioceptive and balance exercises

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